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Monthly Archives: July 2012

Read my pdf of work in progress on Digital Media Basics:

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The Story of Experimental Film

by Bob Cotton, June 2012

“The measure of an artist’s originality, put in its simplest terms. is the extent to which his selective emphasis deviates from the conventional norm, and establishes new standards of relevance. All great innovations which inaugerate a new era, movement or school, consist in sudden shifts of a previously neglected aspect of experience, some blacked-out range of the existential spectrum. The decisive turning-points in the history of every art form…uncover what has already been there: they are “revolutionary”, that is destructive and constructive, they compel us to revalue our values and impose new sets of rules on the eternal game.”

Arthur Koestler: The Act of Creation (1964)

Koestler’s 1964 book is about inspiration, innovation and creativity, and it was the first major treatment of this subject in the 20th century. His central point about creativity is that it doesn’t happen if you just do nothing. In order to be really creative you must first of all be immersed in your subject – you must be full of it. Then your personal insight or intuition can work on something ‘tangible’ – you can find an original perspective on the subject – you can provide your ‘selective emphasis’, perhaps on some ‘previously neglected aspect of experience’. More recently Margaret Boden has pointed out that discovery is akin to creativity – and it can have two results – discoveries that are new to the individual (these are common as we learn about things), and discoveries that are new to mankind (these are rare). Creativity can be ordered on the same scale – we often feel really pleased when we make a song, a painting or a story (or a film, or any sort of mediated experience), but when this is put into the historical context of the artefact (ie compared with what everyone else is doing), then we humbly realise that maybe it isn’t so original after all. Or maybe we are really pleased that we have got somewhere close to originality (and – what joy when we discover that other people recognise this too!)

“(Ettiene-Jules) Marey made it possible for the avant-garde to become receptive to new values: instead of escape into the past, the unreal or the dream, there was the double cult of machines and their propulsion ….inspiring Giacomo Balla & Luigi Russolo, Marinetti, and ultimately Duchamp (1912 Nude Decending a Staircase)

– Etienne-Jules Marey : a passion for the trace, by François Dagognet

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Etienne-Jules Marey: chrono-photographe 1882

The history of experimental film is therefor heavily weighted towards the early experiments – simply, there was much more to innovate and invent then! So what we take for granted as devices ‘natural’ to film – the edit, the flashback, intercut parallel stories, the closeup, medium close-up, long-shot, positioning or location shot, the pan, tracking, back-projection, double-exposure, special effects – all these techniques had to be ‘invented’ by the early film-makers, and this has justifiably made these men and women famous.

Credit for the invention of motion pictures is usually given to the American Thomas Alva Edison (1891) , or to the French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere (1895). The Lumiere brothers have the best claim because their technology used a camera-projector technology that produced a projected image for an audience of many people, while Edison’s first machine was a ‘peep-show’ machine.

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1891 Edison – Kinetoscope ‘peep-show’ motion pictures for one

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1894 Edison: Kinetoscope Parlour in New York City

Of course these machines only had an audience of one, so  it wasn’t long before Edison was developing a film camera and projector system – one machine could reach audiences of a few hundred! in 1896 Edison launched first the Vitascope then the Kinetoscope Projector.

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Auguste and Louis Lumiere: Cinematographe 1895


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The other main contenders for the invention of the Movies were August and Louis Lumiere, with their combined camera-projector launched in 1895. Their ingenious invention was commercially supported by a range of films shot by themselves (including the famous Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat), as well as talented new directors, including the first woman film director Alice Guy Blaché:


Alice Guy Blaché: La Fée aux Choux (The Cabbage Fairy) – first narrative filmImage
Alice Guy Blache’s film The Cabbage Fairy is widely regarded as the first narrative film.
But with this smorgasbord of different inventions in the technology of film-making, viewing and projection, what was actually drawing the audiences into the Kinetoscope Parlours, amusement arcades, and viewing theatres (no proper ‘cinemas’ until 1904), was the films themselves – often no more than a minute or two long. Alice Guy Blaché  was the first female film director that we know of, and the author of the first narrative film – predating those of Lumiere by a few months.It fell to Blaché to make the first narrative film – the first attempt to tell a story with motion pictures. Although only a minute long, Blaché’s film was the first one of several hundred thousand storytelling movies.

Just to recap the history of the technology of motion pictures, takes us back over the 19th Century, beginning with the optical toys like the Thaumatrope:

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1824 John Ayrton Paris: the Thaumatrope

 – the images on either side of a spinning disc fuse in the viewer’s perception to create a composited virtual  image

But recently the complexity of the story of the invention of the Motion Picture has become apparent. After nearly a century of necessary preliminary inventions, including various toys that provided the illusion of a motion picture (like the thaumatrope), the magic lantern, Photography itself, flip-books, cameras that could take successive images on paper, the invention of celluloid film and then film strips, film-projectors (etc). By the last decade of the 19th Century, all these ‘preliminary’ inventions werre in place, and several dozen inventors, working largely on their own, competed to produce a viable motion-picture system.

http://www.victorian-cinema.net/machines.htm

These included:

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Louis le Prince:  Roundhay Garden Scene 1888 

(this is the earliest surviving motion picture, predating both Edison and Lumiere) 1888

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1i40rnpOsA

Leeds Bridge 1888

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7saH58usq4

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Louis le Prince was French, and later worked in England and the USA. As a child he spent time with his father’s friend Jacques Louis Mande Daguerre who in the 1830s had perfected the first positive photographic system the Daguerrotype. So Le Prince learned about chemistry, cameras, lenses, and the art of photography from one of the great inventors. (Daguerre had made his own name initially by the production of large scale Dioramas (360-degree panoramas) – huge paintings on canvas that were mounted in specially built circular pavilions, and showed famous city-scapes, battle-scenes or notable countryside vistas)


Louis le Prince: Leeds Bridge 1888

Louis le Prince went on the study Painting in Paris, and Chemistry in Leipzig.He went to Leeds in 1866 where he married an artist and with his wife’s brother set up a company specialising in printing coloured images onto metals and ceramics, they also founded Leeds Technical School of Art. In the early 1880s, Le Prince first worked on a 16-lens camera in an attempt to make a motion picture, by exposing a sensitised sheet of paper – one frame per lens, but the results were jerky as each lens was taking an image from a slightly different perspective. Then Le Prince made a single lens camera, shooting onto a strip of sensitised paper 90mm wide and 1.2 metres long (very short movies!).

Georges Demeny: Phonoscope 1892

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Georges Demeny worked with Etienne-Jules Marey on his chrono-photographes, and then in 1892 devised his Photophone for taking motion images and his Phonoscope for projecting them.

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Georges Demeny pronouncing ‘je vous aime’ to Marey’s chronophotographic gun camera in 1882

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Etienne-Jules Marey: Chronophotographic Gun 1882

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Etienne-Jules Marey: Chronophotographe 1882

Photography was spurring innovation in other directions too – both HP Bowditch and Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton, who was mainly interested in research into faces, and whether facial features could reveal anything of the inner psychology or character of the sitter (he made many composites of criminal types) – both Bowditch and Galton produced studies or composition images (over-printed or sandwich-printed) portraits, where several negatives would be printed onto one sensitised plate.

HP Bowditch 12 Boston Doctors composite overprint 1894


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These were still images formed from overprinting 12 negatives in order to produce an ‘archetypal’ or average image (centre) for a doctor.

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Nancy Burson: The New Face of America 1993

A hundred years later, working at the New York Institute of Technology, Nancy Burson developed sophisticated computer-graphic layering techniques to create composite portraits. By averaging dozens of photographs of models, film-stars, great society beauties (etc) can you create the portrait of a type of person?
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2004 Nancy Burson: One (Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha)
Original ‘types’ are called Ur-types or archetypes, and I guess Burson had the same fascination as Galton and Bowditch in trying to discover the ur-type ‘holy man’ or avatar. This is a fascinating area of research. Have you ever wondered where we get our mental image of Christ, Buddha or Mohammed? Historically there are no contemporary portraits that we know of, so where do these pervasive images come from? They recur throughout recent history as artists and illustrators tackle the mythological – look at the commonalities in pictures of fairies and elves and other mythological creatures. What souces do illustrators and artists draw from? How do they assess the verisimilitude of their pictures?
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Wanda Wulz 1932 Self-Portrait

1932 Wanda Wulz: self-portraits

Wulz was a late-Futurist artist – she met Marinetti in 1931. By this time the Futurists were aligning behind Mussolini’s fascist. A very beautiful woman, she made a variety of Futurist photographs using multiple exposures, photodynamic long exposures, and she was a very proficient conventional photographer too – running her father’s studio in Trieste. But Wanda and her sister Marion also flirted with Surrealism. In this double-exposure, Wanda has retained a human eye – her own. She also made a portrait of her cat again with her own left eye superimposed on the cat’s.


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Marcel Duchamp: 5-Way Self-Portrait 1917
Of course artists and experimental photographers – like Duchamp, Man Ray, Moholy Nagy, Dziga Vertov – had experimented with multiple exposure composites or ‘sandwich printing’. The discovery of how photography could be a flexible tool for compositing images together, had been shaired by Mid Victorian photographers like Henry Peach-Robinson and Oscar Rejlander.
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Oscar Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 1857 – the kindly father shows his sons the rewards of the life of Vice and a life of Virtue. A Composite of 32 separate negatives were used to create this, (at that time) a really large photograph – 41cm x 79 cm –  one of the first great examples of multiple-printing.

But these composites were a interesting sideshow in media development compared to the work of the Englishman Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge had taught himself the wet-collodion photographic process in the 1860s, and settled back in California, becoming a noted landscape and architecture photographer. In the 1870s Muybridge had been contracted by Leland Stanford, a wealthy race horse owner (and founder of Stanford University), to settle a bet – whether all four feet of a horse were off the ground when trotting. Muybridge had already done some time-lapse photography of the building of the San Francisco Mint, and had already invented and patented a device for printing – and a washing machine – so he was an inventor. He created a special test-track where horses could be encouraged to trot, and set up a series of cameras and trip-wires, so that as the horse trotted along the test-track, it would break the trip-wire and trigger an exposure in each camera in turn.


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Muybridge: test-track for the Leland Stanford-funded horse locomotion  photographs – 24 cameras, 24 trip-wires = 24 photographs of each stage of a horse’s locomotion.

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Of course, when you displayed these images one after the other (when you animated them), you could ‘see’ the movement of the horse:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Horse_in_Motion-anim.gif

Realising this, Muybridge revisited an older invention and produced his Zoopraxiscope – a simple spinning device that created the illusion of movement, and could be projected

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Muybridge: Zoopraxiscope slide-disk 1893

Muybridge, another great media innovator from this period had started to animate drawings based on his chronological photographs in a device based upon a magic lantern that he called the Zoopraxiscope (from 1893).

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Muybridge: Zoopraxiscope Projector 1893

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Hughes: Portable Triple Magic Lantern c1880

Gradually through the 19th Century, first with oil-lamps, then with large electric bulbs, the public were getting used to seeing projected images – at fairgrounds, music halls, sea-side variety theatres, carnival tents and market arcades. In Brighton – still a fashionable and slightly risque holiday venue – they saw shows produced by George Albert Smith, one of the pioneer British film-makers. Smith (who started his career as a professional hypnotist) performed with his wife, creating a mix of story-telling, illustrated lectures, and music-hall comedy sketches accompanied by projected images using magic-lanterns like this one.

By 1898-1900 Smith had created significant innovations – like the film title, the inter-title, and parallel action – as in Santa Claus 1898.

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George Albert Smith: Santa Claus 1898

 – frame within frame parallel action.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmSJ5SAXHws

The technology of moving pictures was roughly coeval with that of another medium that told stories with pictures – the comic strip. The comic strip began to appear in American papers in the last couple of decades of the 19th Century – Rudolph Dirks Katzenjammer Kids was one of the first great strips – it appeared regularly in American newspapers for nearly a century – as The Captain and the Kids until 1979! There is a kind of interplay between comics and the movies – especially the development of the storyboard, reputed to be from the Walt Disney studios in 1933. Now of course, comic strip characters are becoming major box-office – think of Sin City, and the comics movies like Superman, Batman, Spiderman, Thor etc….

1897 Rudolph Dirks: The Katzenjammer Kids


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1897 Rudolph Dirks: The Katzenjammer Kids

George Albert Smith, like Georges Melies, came from a theatrical, music-hall background (as a hypnotist), running his own stage-show with his wife, a professional music-hall entertainer and actress, who appears in several of his films. Smith began by showing magic lantern slides as part of his stage-show, amplifying these with live performance and narration (and presumedly smoke, mirrors, lighting effects and music and sound effects), before experimenting by transferring these skills and techniques to film-making.

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George Albert Smith : Grandma’s Reading Glass  1900 – first close-up

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-LVBb3TXAs

George Albert Smith pioneered ‘dissolving views’ – presumedly using cross-fades between magic lanterns – and he developed a movie camera in partnership with local Brighton camera-maker Alfred Darling, and he invented Kinemacolor – one of the first colour filter-based colour movie film formats:

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Alfred Darling: Biokam – movie-camera/projector/stills camera 1899

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1910 George Albert Smith: Kinemacolor Camera

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George Albert Smith: Film Studio at Hove Sussex 1897

And he built his own filming studio with glass roof, proscenium stage, barn doors for extra daylight. And as noted, in 1897 Smith invented and patented a double-exposure technique in 1897, enabling him to produce ‘frame-in-frame’ parallel action sequences.

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Georges Melies: Voyage dans la Lune (1902)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dTVfSJoj04&feature=related

In France, Georges Melies, the great experimental film-maker, had also enjoyed a background in music hall and variety theatre – as a magician. This was an ideal background for his work with cinematic special effects. Voyage to the Moon (1902) is his masterpiece – the first science-fiction film – and a catalogue of innovative effects, stage designs and cinematic story-telling.


Edwin S. Porter: Great Train Robbery 1903Imagehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bc7wWOmEGGY
Between them, these early pioneers (George Albert Smith, RW Paul, Georges Melies, Edwin S. Porter (and others) invented most of the basic grammar and syntax of the motion picture, including: the close-up, the double-exposure, stop motion, elapsed time, hand-colouring, editing shots into sequences, parallel action, titles and inter-titles, prosthetic make-up, and much more that would become the building-blocks of  the major art and entertainment form of the 20th Century.

Raoul Grimoin-Sanson: Cineorama 1900ImageRaoul Grimoin-Sanson: The Cineorama (1900)
The Paris World Exposition in 1900 was the launchpad for a number of innovations and continued an artistic obsession which re-occurs throughout the history of media developments from Greek Theatre, through Wagnerian Opera, Victorian Dioramas and the Ballets Russes, – it was the interest in making immersive multimedia experiences. Wagner christened this the Gesampkunstwerk or ‘Composite Art Work’. Grimoin-Sanson’s fabulous Cineorama was shown at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and was a brave attempt to create a 360-degree simulation of a balloon flight over Paris, using 10 synchronised 70mm projectors…

Lumiere: Photorama 1900-1902
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The Lumiere Bros also exhibited in 1900 – their Photorama was another sophisticated attempt to create a photographically mediated ‘immersive’ experience for the audience… this was to become a recurring motif in new media art…

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Autochrome colour Photography 1903 Autochrome – subtle, painterly, impressionist colour in a photograph

During this same period, the Lumiere Brothers were experimenting with a colour photography technique that they called Autochrome (patented in 1903). This produced beautiful, soft-coloured images, the soft colour coming from the microscopic potato-starch partlcles that had been dyed with three primary colours – red-orange, green and blue-violet, then randomly mixed onto a paper substrate, coated with a lamp black background, then covered with a pan-chromatic photo-sensitive solution. 

These 3 additive primary colours had been identified in the Young-Helmholtz-Maxwell Theory of Trichromatic Vision in 1861 – which analysed the light-sensitive rods and cones in the eye, and determined that they were sensitive to red, green and blue and that all other colours were made by mixing RGB values.

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Clerk Maxwell’s theory of colour vision sparked a number of innovations – the Autochrome Process was one, Pointillist (post-Impressionist) painting another, and the third was a commercial printing technique for printing full-colour images by breaking the image down into dots of the primary colours:

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close-up of a pointillist painting (Seurat 1884)

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trichromatic colour printing (enlarged to show colour dots ) – from 1892


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Edward Steichen: Autochrome c1904
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Claude Renoir: Baigneuse 1888
Renoir and the impressionists began to explore the the nature of vision in the light of the Young-Helmholtz-Maxwell theory of colour vision, often using a pointillist brush-mark – dots of pure colour – to create their subtle paintings. So trichromatic printing, the Autochrome colour photograph, and the pointillist painting shared some features in common, all being derived from the same theory.
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Stereo-Autochrome c1900
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Stereo viewers had been invented by Charles Wheatstone in the 1850s, and a spate of stereo cameras became available soon after. When Kodak launched its Stereo Brownie camera around 1904, stereo photography became widespread. The brilliant 20th Century photographer Jacques Henri Lartigue (Diary of a Century, 1970), made most of his early work in the stereo format.
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Charles Wheatstone (who had previously invented a telegraph system) proposed his theory of stereo vision in 1838. By 1851, stereo-cameras and viewers like this one were available.
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Thomas Sutton (for James Clerk Maxwell) the ‘first’ colour photograph 1861

By exposing a panchromatic plate through three colour filters (RGB of course), Maxwell was able to create a colour scene (the tartan ribbon):

“The first color photograph made according to Maxwell’s prescription, a set of three monochrome “color separations“, was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in illustrating a lecture on color by Maxwell, where it was shown in color by the triple projection method. The test subject was a bow made of ribbon with stripes of various colors, apparently including red and green. During the lecture, which was about physics and physiology, not photography, Maxwell commented on the inadequacy of the results and the need for a photographic material more sensitive to red and green light. A century later, historians were mystified by the reproduction of any red at all, because the photographic process used by Sutton was for all practical purposes totally insensitive to red light and only marginally sensitive to green. In 1961, researchers found that many red dyes also reflect ultraviolet light, coincidentally transmitted by Sutton’s red filter, and surmised that the three images were probably due to ultra-violet, blue-green and blue wavelengths, rather than to red, green and blue.[2]

Maxwell’s 1855 suggestion and this seriously defective 1861 demonstration appear to have been quickly and completely forgotten until being brought to light again in the 1890s. In the intervening decades, the basic concept was independently re-invented by several people.” (wikipedia)

Mutoscope: 

flick-book ‘What the Butler Saw’ penny-slot machines

The Mutoscope Player c 1903

Herman Casler: Mutoscope showing flip-book mechanism

“The Mutoscope worked on the same principle as the “flip book.” The individual image frames were conventional black-and-white, silver-based photographic prints on tough, flexible opaque cards. Rather than being bound into a booklet, the cards were attached to a circular core, rather like a huge Rolodex. A reel typically held about 850 cards, giving a viewing time of about a minute. The reel with cards attached had a total diameter of about ten inches (25 cm); the individual cards had dimensions of about 2-3/4″ x 1-7/8″ (7 cm x 4.75 cm).

Mutoscopes were coin-operated. The patron viewed the cards through a single lens enclosed by a hood, similar to the viewing hood of a stereoscope. The cards were generally lit electrically, but the reel was driven by means of a geared-down hand crank. Each machine held only a single reel and was dedicated to the presentation of a single short subject, described by a poster affixed to the machine.”

(wikipedia)

The Ludoscope (‘games-viewer’) – based on Joseph Plateau’s Phenakistoscope (1832)

The highly successful Mutoscope (still in Amusement Arcades in the UK until decimalisation in 1970), and Edison’s profitable Kinetoscope, followed in a long tradition of toys like the Thaumatrope and Joseph Plateau’s Phenakistoscope as individual viewing machines in parlours, amusement arcades and fair-grounds around the UK.

http://www.veengle.com/s/Phenakistoscope.html

 But now I want to illustrate the context in which the ferment of innovation and experimentation in motion pictures was taking place:
Henri Matisse: Woman with a Hat 1905

Matisse was a most important contemporary of Picasso – his style of painting extended the Impressionist idea of colour into a much more expressive territory – this style of painting was called Fauvist (like a Wild Beast) by its detractors.

Peter Behrens: AEG Corporate Identity 1906

Just another flavour of how the 20th century media-arts were developing around the same time as Cubism and Fauvism – Peter Behrens was a German artist who became the world’s first ‘industrial’ designer, and in 1906 he created a wide range of products, including electric lamps, electric clocks, and other products for the German electrical supplier AEG. In doing this, he also created the world’s first ‘corporate identity’ – a complete branding system for AEG, all their products, their factories, livery, etc…

All this activity – new art movements (Futurism, Fauvism, post-Impressionism, Vorticism etc), new ways of looking at the world (Cubism, Special Relativity, the Movies, Animation etc), industrial design – all these things were happening at the same time as the invention of radio telegraph (Marconi), voice-radio transmission (Fessender), half-tone photo-reproduction, trichromatic printing, the Autochrome colour photograph, electric typewriter… all these innovations and inventions in art and science and technology began to create a world that is a kind of preview of our own times. Consider how the WWW (1993), ipod (2001), iphone (2007), ipad (2010), PS2 (2000),  X-Box (2001), HDTV (2004), iTunes (2003), movie special effects, e-books (2007), Facebook(2004), and the rest have altered our world in just a few years…

Robert W Paul + W.R. Booth: The Motorist 1906

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sk1ZunbY7Xc

This is the first ever feature film. It was a box-office success in both Australia and England, and spawned several imitations, and indeed was remade or partially remade by the Tait brothers in 1910.

It’s inspiring of course, because it is the first ever feature film (predating D.W. Griffiths’ Birth of a Nation (1915) by almost a decade, and a year before the first European feature L’Enfant Prodigue (Michel Carre 1907). Coincidentally, the first Westerns shot in the real Wild West, were made in the USA the following year – bushrangers, bandits and outlaws fuelled the public taste for screened entertainment.

This was the first ever feature film (not just the main film in an evening’s entertainment but at some venues in Australia in 1906 the only film to be shown). Produced by the theatrical entrepreneurs the Tait brothers, the film capitalised on the public’s taste for bushranger stories, as evidenced by the success of shorts like Bushranging in North Queensland (1904) and The Bushranger (1904). The eponymous hero and most notorious bush-ranger, Ned Kelly, had been captured and executed only 25 years previously (1880).

George Albert Smith: Kinemacolor (1906)

So during this fascinating period of transformative developments in the arts, sciences and communications and entertainment media (Arts: Cubism, Futurism, Fauvism; Sciences: Quantum Theory, Relativity, Psychology; Technology: Wireless telegraphy and voice radio, theory of television, colour printing, electric typewriter, telephone, (etc); Entertainment: Film, Mutoscope, cylinder and disc record players; juke-box, colour photography, Brownie snapshot camera, etc)) there is a parallel between the innovation in media technologies and the innovation of artists, directors and entrepreneurs (producers, impresarios, show-men, arcade owners) who were developing commercial content for these technologies.

The directors, including Georges Melies, Alice Guy Blache, Charles Tait, Louis Feuillade, George Albert Smith, Eric Porter, and RW Paul invented the movies as much as Edison, Lumiere and the others that we have mentioned invented the technology of the movies.

The remainder of this talk illustrates just some of these developments in form and content that characterised the period up to around 1915 – the period of the invention of Cinema.

Pablo Picasso: Demoiselles d’Avignon 1907

We are now aware, as we look back, that there are several epoch-changing events in this formative period. For example, Picasso’s painting Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907) – widely regarded to have initiated the Cubist movement – an art movement that was going to affect Western Art in a fundamental way. Demoiselles is a painting of a group of women in a bordello or brothel (in a street called Avignon in Barcelona). The subject matter is itself shocking to Edwardian/Belle Epoque cultural tastes, but even more shocking was the manner in which Picasso had painted these women – had created a painting with them as the subject. Had created a painting with stylistic references to African art, to Mediaeval Spanish sculpture, had dispensed with conventional perspective, conventional backgrounds, conventional ideas as to how a nude should be painted. Picasso had made a painting – a large (8 foot-square) painting – that even his friends found so shocking that they persuaded him to hide it away. It wasn’t exhibited until 1937.

Alan Campbell Swinton: A Vision of Distant Electronic Vision (Tele-Vision) in 1908

Campbell Swinton’s visionary article in Scientific American of 1908 is the first ever description of an electronic television – he calls it ‘distant electronic vision’ which, after Baird’s abortive attempt at an electro-mechanical television system, became the only way that TV works..until the digital revolution removed the need for the cathode ray tube.

“This part of the problem of obtaining distant electric vision can probably be solved by the employment of two beams of kathode rays (one at the transmitting and one at the receiving station) synchronously deflected by the varying fields of two electromagnets placed at right angles to one another and energised by two alternating electric currents of widely different frequencies, so that the moving extremities of the two beams are caused to sweep simultaneously over the whole of the required surface within the one-tenth of a second necessary to take advantage of visual persistence.” -A. A. Campbell Swinton in Scientific American

Emil Cohl: Fantasmagorie 1908 – first animation?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEAObel8yIE

1909 Albert Kahn: Archive of the Planet

Kahn’s project lasted from 1909 to 1930. He commissioned hundreds of photographers, gave them cameras and colour film (Autochrome) and they created and collected 72000 colour photographs from over 50 countries.

http://www.albertkahn.co.uk

1909 Serge Diaghilev: Ballets Russe

Leon Bakst costume for Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes Firebird 1910

Ballets Russes were another epic attempt to create a composite or total art work, after the gesamptkunstwerk ideal described by Wagner 50 years earlier.

Serge Prokudin-Gorsky: Colour photo-documentary: Russian Empire 1909

Working directly for Czar Nicholas, Prokudin-Gorsky tried to document every aspect and region of the Imperial Russian Empire – stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific, and the Arctic to Azerbajan, with beautiful autochrome-style colour photographs – a project nearly as grand in concept as Albert Kahn’s Planetary Archive – began the previous year.


1910 Winsor McCay: Little Nemo in Slumberland


Winsor McCay created animated films and stage performances, where he would tell a Little Nemo story, illustrating it with drawings, clips of previously made animations, and live drawing.

1911 Winsor McCay: Little Nemo animation


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcSp2ej2S00

Why does this inspire?

McCay stands out above all other comic artists, for his delightful and quintessential Art Nouveau drawing and colouring, but it is the imaginative animation that inspires. Like Norman McLaren some 30 years later, McCay is not afraid to improvise and innovate. In Little Nemo, he combines frame-by-frame drawing, live drawing to camera, live action, colour and captioning – mixing these styles to both capture the magic of animation, and hinting at his stage performances to be developed fully in 1914 with his Gertie the Dinosaur shows. The breakdown of the audiences’ cognitive framework – their suspension of disbelief – by revealing the technique of the animator and illustrator, is McCay’s original contribution to the history of animation.

1911 Anton Bragaglia: Photodynamic Typewriter

Photography was still under the spell of Marey and Muybridge, and the Futurists welcomed this opportunity to exploit motion blur, multiple exposure and chrono-photography to create images with motion.


Anton Bragaglia: Photodynamic Typewriter 1911

1911: Robert Delaunay: The City of Paris

In a series of works initiated by The City of Paris, Robert Delaunay began to use painting as a compositing tool, drawing together and synthesising visual components derived from his own paintings and sketches from nature, postcards, newspaper images and the works of other painters, developing a cubist-derived style to integrate these fragments together in works that are still fresh and new. In City of Paris, you can detect fragments of his own Eiffel Tower (The Red Tower 1910) some cityscape by Henri Rousseau, and the classical Three Graces. This approach is revolutionary in Modernist painting, though some Victorian artists had explored the compositing idea some 50 years before (see William Powell Frith Derby Day 1858), and so too had photographers in the 19th century – see Aaron Scharf: Art and Photography (1967)

1912: Marcel Duchamp: Nude Descending A Staircase

Robert Delaunay: Red Tower 1912

Giacomo Balla: Dynamism of a Dog 1912

Influenced by the chrono-photographic work of Etienne-Jules Marey, the Futurists thought that they had found the solution to the ‘static’ qualities of Cubism – Balla, Severini and others applied this to painting, the Bragaglia brothers developed the artistic use of chronophotography in their ‘photodynamic’ photo-prints…


Gino Severini: Bal Tabarin 1912The Futurists borrowed many ideas from Cubism – and applied them to dynamic subjects, trying to capture the dynamism and simultaneous mesh of movements of real life, the multi-sensory experience of a night-club dance – such as Severini’s Bal Tabarin – the full title is Dynamic Heiroglyph of the Bal Tabarin – literally a short-hand description of a dance at the Bal Tabarin night-club in Paris. Of course, our real experience of events we are closely engaged in – dancing at a disco for example are comprised of different fragmentary impressions, bits of bodies, faces, dresses, neon, tables, wine glasses and bottles, as well as our memories and associations triggered by our experience…Anton Bragaglia: Fotodinamismo Futurista

Luigi Russolo: Art of Noise

The main strands of avant-garde art during this period affected Music too – Alexandr Scriabin composed his Prometheus for instruments and coloured lights, Russolo – another Futurist – developed his theory of The Art of Noise – and put this theory into practice with his ‘Mechanical Orchestra’.

1913: Giorgio de Chirico: Melancholy and Mystery of a Street

Around this time, the Italian artist Giorgio de Chirico – not a futurist – was exploring the imagery of dreams (Freud had published The Interpretation of Dreams in 1900), mixing different styles or formats of perspective:multiple  vanishing-point, isometric, axonometric, with threatening shadows, mysterious figures, unanswered questions and narratives… his ‘metaphysical’ (pittura Metafisica) paintings of 1911-1918 greatly impressed and influenced the Surrealists some ten years later – you can see this influence especially  in the paintings of Paul Delvaux, Rene Magritte and Leonora Carrington…

1913 Louis Feuillade: Fantomas

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTWccq8xn_w

The Surrealists were also vastly impressed and influenced by the serial films of Louis Feuillade: Fantomas (1913), Les Vampires (1915), Judex (1916) – these were serials – 10, 12, or 13 part-films, each around 25 minutes long, magical and fantastic crime thrillers (the Vampires are a gang of thieves and murderers, who invent ingenious crimes). Most, if not all of these films are available on Youtube.

Feuillade: Les Vampires

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TTM_4X64x5w

1920-21 Walter Ruttmann: Lichtspiel Opus and Spiel der Wellen

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k9vSRPN4jDk

In the climate of DADA, and the vibrant Russian Constructivist arts emerging from the Civil War (1917-1922) Ruttman, Richter and other artists began to experiment with abstract animations. These short films set the tone for a wave of 1920s experimental films that have become collectively known as avant-garde film.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gftt3_8D3gU

1907 Stuart Blackton: The Haunted Hotel

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTE8gXCb_og

The jugs, crockery and bottles in an hotel room come alive after dark in the haunted hotel, and they are joined by a tiny Comedia del’arte mannequin. This is an early stop-motion animation.

 

1927 Robert Florey: The Love of Zero

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_qKQnt4dP8&feature=related

Florey was a Franco-American who directed many Hollywood movies including Murders in the Rue Morgue. You can see from the still above that he was influenced by Robert Weine’s Cabinet of Dr Caligari, and his aptitude for interesting shorts in the 1920s probably stemmed from his work as an assistant to Louis Feuillade in the early part of the century.

Fernand Leger: Three Women 1921

Fernand Leger: Ballet Mecanique 1924

Leger was already an established and successful ‘post-Cubist’ painter at the time he collaborated with American film-maker Dudley Murphy and composer George Antheil on maybe one of the first ‘art’ movies – the Ballet Mecanique.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9SgsqmQJAq0

Ballet Mecanique was a unique and influential experiment, though due both to technical reasons (synchronised sound wasn’t available until 1929-30), and artistic-personal reasons, the film was not married to its sound-track until the late 1990s. Antheil’s music is an iconic Modernist piece – at one and the same time, very much of its time, but using sound samples and audio-trouve techniques more familiar to the digital age. It must have seemed incomprehensible at the time…

Leger worked with Dudley Murphy and Man Ray on the visual (silent) film. Man Ray was an artist and experimental photographer and cinematographer, and Murphy a young revolutionary film maker (Danse Macabre 1922) who went on to make the first feature film with a Black cast and Star (Bessie Smith in St Louis Blues (1929).

I found the music of Ballet Mecanique so inspiring I incorporated in my film ZeitEYE – which features 11 decades of media-arts innovations in 11 minutes, set to Antheil’s iconic composition.


Dziga Vertov Man with a Movie Camera 1929http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iey9YIbra2UThis is Vertov’s masterpiece, following his epic One Sixth of the World (1926), and his work on the Agit Kino Trains with Alexander Medvedkin during the Russian Civil War (1917-1922 – the period central to Pasternak’s Dr Zhivago), and his work on Kino-Pravda – (Movie-Truth) in the early 1920s. The Man with a Movie Camera is ‘an experiment in cinematic communication’ – ‘without the help of intertitles, without the help of a story, without the help of theatre,” it is a film that attempts to create a truly international, purely cinematic experience… The ‘Author-Supervisor-Experimenter’ is David Abelevich Kaufmann, aka Dziga Vertov.Luis Bunuel: Le Chien Andalou 1929

Bunuel had met Salvador Dali and the poet Federico Garcia Lorca at university in Madrid. Beginning his adult life as a philosopher, he moved to Paris and began work as an assistant director, working with Jean Epstein and Josephine Baker. In 1929, he developed a short film Le Chien Andalou (The Andalusian Dog) with Salvador Dali. This became the most famous film of the Surrealist movement, and vastly influential in the world of experimental film. So in 1929 you have two major seminal works: from Vertov and Bunuel.

Of course there are many other experimental films still of interest from the 1920s. It was the decade in which the artist’s film – the experimental film – came alive. And they weren’t just ‘films’ in the narrative style that had become major box office – they weren’t just films that told stories, or ‘remediated’ older media like the play, or the novel. A classic example from this period is Marcel Duchamp’s Anemic Cinema (1926) – working with Man Ray and others, Duchamp began to explore the same territory as Laslo Moholy Nagy and Hirschfield-Mack (we’ll look at their work a bit later in this talk) – building machines that would make films…

Duchamp had become famous with his Nude Descending a Staircase (1912), and his giant  construction – the ‘Large Glass’ – The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even.(1923)







 


The Story of Experimental Film

by Bob Cotton, June 2012

“The measure of an artist’s originality, put in its simplest terms. is the extent to which his selective emphasis deviates from the conventional norm, and establishes new standards of relevance. All great innovations which inaugerate a new era, movement or school, consist in sudden shifts of a previously neglected aspect of experience, some blacked-out range of the existential spectrum. The decisive turning-points in the history of every art form…uncover what has already been there: they are “revolutionary”, that is destructive and constructive, they compel us to revalue our values and impose new sets of rules on the eternal game.”

Arthur Koestler: The Act of Creation (1964)

Koestler’s 1964 book is about inspiration, innovation and creativity, and it was the first major treatment of this subject in the 20th century. His central point about creativity is that it doesn’t happen if you just do nothing. In order to be really creative you must first of all be immersed in your subject – you must be full of it. Then your personal insight or intuition can work on something ‘tangible’ – you can find an original perspective on the subject – you can provide your ‘selective emphasis’, perhaps on some ‘previously neglected aspect of experience’. More recently Margaret Boden has pointed out that discovery is akin to creativity – and it can have two results – discoveries that are new to the individual (these are common as we learn about things), and discoveries that are new to mankind (these are rare). Creativity can be ordered on the same scale – we often feel really pleased when we make a song, a painting or a story (or a film, or any sort of mediated experience), but when this is put into the historical context of the artefact (ie compared with what everyone else is doing), then we humbly realise that maybe it isn’t so original after all. Or maybe we are really pleased that we have got somewhere close to originality (and – what joy when bt.yahoo.comwe discover that other people recognise this too!)

“(Ettiene-Jules) Marey made it possible for the avant-garde to become receptive to new values: instead of escape into the past, the unreal or the dream, there was the double cult of machines and their propulsion ….inspiring Giacomo Balla & Luigi Russolo, Marinetti, and ultimately Duchamp (1912 Nude Decending a Staircase)

– Etienne-Jules Marey : a passion for the trace, by François Dagognet

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Etienne-Jules Marey: chrono-photographe 1882

The history of experimental film is therefor heavily weighted towards the early experiments – simply, there was much more to innovate and invent then! So what we take for granted as devices ‘natural’ to film – the edit, the flashback, intercut parallel stories, the closeup, medium close-up, long-shot, positioning or location shot, the pan, tracking, back-projection, double-exposure, special effects – all these techniques had to be ‘invented’ by the early film-makers, and this has justifiably made these men and women famous.

Credit for invention of motion pictures is usually given to the American Thomas Alvar Edison (1891) , or to the French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumiere (1895). The Lumiere brothers have the best claim because their technology used a camera-projector technology that produced a projected image for an audience of many people, while Edison’s first machine was a ‘peep-show’ machine.

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1891 Edison – Kinetoscope ‘peep-show’ motion pictures for one

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1894 Edison: Kinetoscope Parlour in New York City

Of course these machines only had an audience of one, so  it wasn’t long before Edison was developing a film camera and projector system – one machine could reach audiences of a few hundred! in 1896 Edison launched first the Vitascope then the Kinetoscope Projector.

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Auguste and Louis Lumiere: Cinematographe 1895


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The other main contenders for the invention of the Movies were August and Louis Lumiere, with their combined camera-projector launched in 1895. Their ingenious invention was commercially supported by a range of films shot by themselves (including the famous Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat), as well as talented new directors, including the first woman film director Alice Guy Blaché:


Alice Guy Blaché: La Fée aux Choux (The Cabbage Fairy) – first narrative filmImageAlice Guy Blache’s film The Cabbage Fairy is widely regarded as the first narrative film

But with this smorgasbord of different inventions in the technology of film-making, viewing and projection, what was actually drawing the audiences into the Kinetoscope Parlours, amusement arcades, and viewing theatres (no proper ‘cinemas’ until 1904), was the films themselves – often no more than a minute or two long. Alice Guy Blaché  was the first female film director that we know of, and the author of the first narrative film – predating those of Lumiere by a few months.

It fell to Blaché to make the first narrative film – the first attempt to tell a story with motion pictures. Although only a minute long, Blaché’s film was the first one of several hundred thousand storytelling movies.

Just to recap the history of the technology of motion pictures, takes us back over the 19th Century, beginning with the optical toys like the Thaumatrope:

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1824 John Ayrton Paris: the Thaumatrope

 – the images on either side of a spinning disc fuse in the viewer’s perception to create a composited virtual  image

But recently the complexity of the story of the invention of the Motion Picture has become apparent. After nearly a century of necessary preliminary inventions, including various toys that provided the illusion of a motion picture (like the thaumatrope), the magic lantern, Photography itself, flip-books, cameras that could take successive images on paper, the invention of celluloid film and then film strips, film-projectors (etc). By the last decade of the 19th Century, several dozen inventors, working largely on their own, competed to produce a viable motion-picture system.

http://www.victorian-cinema.net/machines.htm

These included:

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Louis le Prince:  Roundhay Garden Scene 1888 

(this is the earliest surviving motion picture, predating both Edison and Lumiere) 1888

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F1i40rnpOsA

Leeds Bridge 1888

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7saH58usq4

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Louis le Prince was French, and later worked in England and the USA. As a child he spent time with his father’s friend Jacques Louis Mande Daguerre who in the 1830s had perfected the first positive photographic system the Daguerrotype. So Le Prince learned about chemistry, cameras, lenses, and the art of photography from one of the great inventors. (Daguerre had made his own name initially by the production of large scale Dioramas (360-degree panoramas) – huge paintings on canvas that were mounted in specially built circular pavilions, and showed famous city-scapes, battle-scenes or notable countryside vistas)


Louis le Prince: Leeds Bridge 1888

Louis le Prince went on the study Painting in Paris, and Chemistry in Leipzig.He went to Leeds in 1866 where he married an artist and with his wife’s brother set up a company specialising in printing coloured images onto metals and ceramics, they also founded Leeds Technical School of Art. In the early 1880s, Le Prince first worked on a 16-lens camera in an attempt to make a motion picture, by exposing a sensitised sheet of paper – one frame per lens, but the results were jerky as each lens was taking an image from a slightly different perspective. Then Le Prince made a single lens camera, shooting onto a strip of sensitised paper 90mm wide and 1.2 metres long (very short movies!).

Georges Demeny: Phonoscope 1892

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Demeny worked with Etienne-Jules Marey on his chrono-photographes, and then in 1892 devised his Photophone for taking motion images and his Phonoscope for projecting them.

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Georges Demeny pronouncing ‘je vous aime’ to Marey’s chronophotographic gun camera in 1882

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Etienne-Jules Marey: Chronophotographic Gun 1882

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Etienne-Jules Marey: Chronophotographe 1882

Photography was spurring innovation in other directions too – both HP Bowditech and Darwin’s cousin Francis Galton, who was mainly interested in research into faces, and whether facial features could reveal anything of the inner psychology or character of the sitter (he made many composites of criminal types) – both Bowditch and Galton produced studies or composition images (over-printed or sandwich-printed) portraits, where several negatives would be printed onto one sensitised plate.

HP Bowditch 12 Boston Doctors composite overprint 1894


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These were still images formed from overprinting 12 negatives in order to produce an ‘archetypal’ or average image (centre) for a doctor.

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Nancy Burson: The New Face of America 1993

A hundred years later, working at the New York Institute of Technology, Nancy Burson developed sophisticated computer-graphic layering techniques to create composite portraits. By averaging dozens of photographs of models, film-stars, great society beauties (etc) can you create the portrait of a type of person?
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2004 Nancy Burson: One (Jesus, Mohammed, Buddha)
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Wanda Wulz 1932 Self-Portrait

1932 Wanda Wulz: self-portraits

Wulz was a late-Futurist artist – she met Marinetti in 1931. By this time the Futurists were aligning behind Mussolini’s fascist. A very beautiful woman, she made a variety of Futurist photographs using multiple exposures, photodynamic long exposures, and she was a very proficient conventional photographer too – running her father’s studio in Trieste. But Wanda and her sister Marion also flirted with Surrealism In this double-exposure, Wanda has retained a human eye – her own. She also made a portrait of her cat again with her own left eye superimposed on the cat’s.


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Marcel Duchamp: 5-Way Self-Portrait 1917
Of course artists and experimental photographers – like Duchamp, Man Ray, Moholy Nagy, Dziga Vertov – had experimented with multiple exposure composites or ‘sandwich printing’. The discovery of how photography could be a flexible tool for compositing images together, had been sharred by Mid Victorian photographers like Henry Peach-Robinson and Oscar Rejlander.
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Oscar Rejlander: Two Ways of Life 1857 – the kindly father shows his sons the rewards of the life of Vice and a life of Virtue. A Composite of 32 separate negatives were used to create this, (at that time) a really large photograph – 41cm x 79 cm –  one of the first great examples of multiple-printing.

But these composites were a interesting sideshow in media development compared to the work of the Englishman Eadweard Muybridge. Muybridge had taught himself the wet-collodion photographic process in the 1860s, and settled back in California, becoming a noted landscape and architecture photographer. In the 1870s Muybridge had been contracted by Leland Stanford, a wealthy race horse owner (and founder of Stanford University), to settle a bet – whether all four feet of a horse were off the ground when trotting. Muybridge had already done some time-lapse photography of the building of the San Francisco Mint, and had already invented and patented a device for printing – and a washing machine – so he was an inventor. He created a special test-track where horses could be encouraged to trot, and set up a series of cameras and trip-wires, so that as the horse trotted along the test-track, it would break the trip-wire and trigger an exposure in each camera in turn.


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Muybridge: test-track for the Leland Stanford-funded horse locomotion  photographs – 24 cameras, 24 trip-wires = 24 photographs of each stage of a horse’s locomotion.

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Of course, when you displayed these images one after the other (when you animated them), you could ‘see’ the movement of the horse:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Horse_in_Motion-anim.gif

Realising this, Muybridge revisited an older invention and produced his Zoopraxiscope – a simple spinning device that created the illusion of movement, and could be projected

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Muybridge: Zoopraxiscope slide-disk 1893

Muybridge, another great media innovator from this period had started to animate drawings based on his chronological photographs in a device based upon a magic lantern that he called the Zoopraxiscope (from 1893).

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Muybridge: Zoopraxiscope Projector 1893

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Hughes: Portable Triple Magic Lantern c1880

Gradually through the 19th Century, first with oil-lamps, then with large electric bulbs, the public were getting used to seeing projected images – at fairgrounds, music halls, sea-side variety theatres, carnival tents and market arcades. In Brighton – still a fashionable and slightly risque holiday venue – they saw shows produced by George Albert Smith, one of the pioneer British film-makers. Smith (who started his career as a professional hypnotist) performed with his wife, creating a mix of story-telling, illustrated lectures, and music-hall comedy sketches accompanied by projected images using magic-lanterns like this one.

By 1898-1900 Smith had created significant innovations – like the film title, the inter-title, and parallel action – as in Santa Claus 1898.

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George Albert Smith: Santa Claus 1898

 – frame within frame parallel action.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bmSJ5SAXHws

The technology of moving pictures was roughly coeval with that of another medium that told stories with pictures – the comic strip. The comic strip began to appear in American papers in the last couple of decades of the 19th Century – Rudolph Dirks Katzenjammer Kids was one of the first great strips – it appeared regularly in American newspapers for nearly a century – as The Captain and the Kids until 1979! There is a kind of interplay between comics and the movies – especially the development of the storyboard, reputed to be from the Walt Disney studios in 1933. Now of course, comic strip characters are becoming major box-office – think of Sin City, and the comics movies like Superman, Batman, Spiderman, Thor etc….

1897 Rudolph Dirks: The Katzenjammer Kids


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1897 Rudolph Dirks: The Katzenjammer Kids

George Albert Smith, like Georges Melies, came from a theatrical, music-hall background (as a hypnotist), running his own stage-show with his wife, a professional music-hall entertainer and actress, who appears in several of his films. Smith began by showing magic lantern slides as part of his stage-show, amplifying these with live performance and narration (and presumedly smoke, mirrors, lighting effects and music and sound effects), before experimenting by transferring these skills and techniques to film-making.

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George Albert Smith : Grandma’s Reading Glass  1900 – first close-up

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-LVBb3TXAs

George Albert Smith pioneered ‘dissolving views’ – presumedly using cross-fades between magic lanterns – and he developed a movie camera in partnership with local Brighton camera-maker Alfred Darling, and he invented Kinemacolor – one of the first colour filter-based colour movie film formats:

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Alfred Darling: Biokam – movie-camera/projector/stills camera 1899

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1910 George Albert Smith: Kinemacolor Camera

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George Albert Smith: Film Studio at Hove Sussex 1897

And he built his own filming studio with glass roof, proscenium stage, barn doors for extra daylight. And as noted, in 1897 Smith invented and patented a double-exposure technique in 1897, enabling him to produce ‘frame-in-frame’ parallel action sequences.

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Georges Melies: Voyage dans la Lune (1902)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dTVfSJoj04&feature=related

In France, Georges Melies the great experimental film-maker, had also enjoyed a background in music hall and variety theatre – as a magician. This was an ideal background for his work with cinematic special effects. Voyage to the Moon (1902) is his masterpiece – the first science-fiction film – and a catalogue of innovative effects, stage designs and cinematic story-telling.


Edwin S. Porter: Great Train Robbery 1903Imagehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bc7wWOmEGGY

Between them, these early pioneers (George Albert Smith, RW Paul, Georges Melies, Edwin S. Porter (and others) invented most of the basic grammar and syntax of the motion picture, including: the close-up, the double-exposure, stop motion, elapsed time, hand-colouring, editing shots into sequences, parallel action, titles and inter-titles, prosthetic make-up, and much more that would become the major art and entertainment form of the 20th Century.


Raoul Grimoin-Sanson: Cineorama 1900ImageRaoul Gromoin-Sanson: The Cineorama (1900)

The Paris World Exposition in 1900 was the launchpad for a number of innovations and continued an artistic obsession which re-occurs throughout the history of media developments from Greek Theatre, through Wagnerian Opera, Victorian Dioramas and the Ballets Russes, – it was the interest in making immersive multimedia experiences. Wagner christened this the Gesampkunstwerk or ‘Composite Art Work’. Gromoin-Sansen’s fabulous Cineorama was shown at the Paris Exposition and was a brave attempt to create a 360-degree simulation of a balloon flight over Paris, using 10 synchronised 70mm projectors…


Lumiere: Photorama 1900-1902
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The Lumiere Bros also exhibited in 1900 – their Photorama was another sophisticated attempt to create a photographically mediated ‘immersive’ experience for the audience… this was to become a recurring motif in new media art…

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Autochrome colour Photography 1903 Autochrome – subtle, painterly, impressionist colour in a photograph

During this same period, the Lumiere Brothers were experimenting with a colour photography technique that they called Autochrome (patented in 1903). This produced beautiful, soft-coloured images, the soft colour coming from the microscopic potato-starch partlcles that had been dyed with three primary colours – red-orange, green and blue-violet, then randomly mixed onto a paper substrate, coated with a lamp black background, then covered with a pan-chromatic photo-sensitive solution. 

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These 3 additive primary colours had been specified in the Young-Helmholtz-Maxwell Theory of Trichromatic Vision in 1861 – which analysed the light-sensitive rods and cones in the eye, and determined that they were sensitive to red, green and blue and that all other colours were made by mixing RGB values.

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Clerk Maxwell’s theory of colour vision sparked a number of innovations – the Autochrome Process was one, Pointillist (post-Impressionist) painting another, and the third was a commercial printing technique for printing full-colour images by breaking the image down into dots of the primary colours:

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close-up of a pointillist painting (Seurat 1884)

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trichromatic colour printing (enlarged to show colour dots ) – from 1892


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Edward Steichen: Autochrome c1904
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Claude Renoir: Baigneuse 1888
Renoir and the impressionists began to explore the the nature of vision in the light of the Young-Helmhotltz-Maxwell theory of colour vision, often using a pointillist brush-mark – dots of pure colour – to create their subtle paintings. So trichromatic printing, the Autochrome colour photograph, and the pointillist painting shared some features in common, all being derived from the same theory.
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Stereo-Autochrome c1900
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Stereo viewers had been invented by Charles Wheatstone in the 1850s, and a spate of stereo cameras became available soon after. When Kodak launched its Stereo Brownie camera around 1904, stereo photography became widespread. The brilliant photographer Jacques Henri Lartigue made most of his early work in the stereo format.
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Charles Wheatstone (who had previously invented a telegraph system) proposed his theory of stereo vision in 1838. By 1851, stereo-cameras and viewers like this one were available.
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Thomas Sutton (for James Clerk Maxwell) the ‘first’ colour photograph 1861

By exposing a panchromatic plate through three colour filters (RGB of course), Maxwell was able to create a colour scene (the tartan ribbon):

“The first color photograph made according to Maxwell’s prescription, a set of three monochrome “color separations“, was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in illustrating a lecture on color by Maxwell, where it was shown in color by the triple projection method. The test subject was a bow made of ribbon with stripes of various colors, apparently including red and green. During the lecture, which was about physics and physiology, not photography, Maxwell commented on the inadequacy of the results and the need for a photographic material more sensitive to red and green light. A century later, historians were mystified by the reproduction of any red at all, because the photographic process used by Sutton was for all practical purposes totally insensitive to red light and only marginally sensitive to green. In 1961, researchers found that many red dyes also reflect ultraviolet light, coincidentally transmitted by Sutton’s red filter, and surmised that the three images were probably due to ultra-violet, blue-green and blue wavelengths, rather than to red, green and blue.[2]

Maxwell’s 1855 suggestion and this seriously defective 1861 demonstration appear to have been quickly and completely forgotten until being brought to light again in the 1890s. In the intervening decades, the basic concept was independently re-invented by several people.” (wikipedia)

Mutoscope: flick-book tableaux vivants